Profiles

Rahul Mehrotra

  • Mehrotra, R. 2012, ‘Between Equity and Impatient Capital: Making Indian Cities’, Journal of International Affairs. 65(2):133.

  • Mehrotra, R. 2011, Architecture in India Since 1990. Mumbai: Pictor. (p.100).

Geoffrey Bawa

  • Daswatte, C. 2003, ‘A Tribute to Geoffrey Bawa’, Explore Sri Lanka. June. (pp.10-14).

  • Jazeel, T. 2007, ‘Bawa and Beyond: Reading Sri Lanka’s Tropical Modern Architecture’, South Asia Journal for Culture. 1: 7-26. (p.11).

  • Jones, R. 2011, ‘Memory, Modernity and History: The Landscapes of Geoffrey Bawa in Sri Lanka, 1948-1998’, Contemporary South Asia. 19(1):9-24. (p.20).

  • Lim, W. & Beng, T.H. 1998, Contemporary Vernacular: Evoking Traditions in Asian Architecture. Singapore: Select Books. (p.82).

  • Robson, D. 2007, Beyond Bawa. London: Thames & Hudson. (pp.18-19).

  • Winchester, R. 2005, ‘Better Living by Design: The Architecture of Geoffrey Bawa’, Art Asia Pacific. 43: 68-71. (p.70).

Kerry Hill Associates

  • Ojeda, O.R. (ed). 2013, Kerry Hill: Crafting Modernism. London: Thames & Hudson. (pp.306, 208,212).

Charles Correa

  • Correa, C. 2000, ‘The Blessing of The Sky (Essay 7)’, Charles Correa. London: Thames & Hudson.

Ken Yeang

  • Building and Construction Authority. 2005, ‘News Release: Green Mark Awards – New National Library is Cool and Green’, National Library Green Marks Award. (p.7).

  • Cole, R., Lovatt, A., Manivannan, M., Newbold, A. & Read, J. 2006, ‘Singapore’s New National Library’, The Arup Jounral. 41(2):51-58. (pp.55).

  • New Lehmnann, S. & Yeang, K. 2010. 'Meeting with the Green Urban Planner: A Conversation Between Ken Yeang and Steffen Lehmann on Eco-masterplanning for Green Cities', Journal of Green Building. 5(1):36-40. (pp.38, 40).

  • Richards, I. 2005, ‘Stack Effect: Ken Yeang’s Ongoing Quest for Ecological Propriety Gathers Momentum in Singapore’, The Architectural Review. July. (p.71)

  • Yeang, K. 2010, ‘Strategies for Designing our Green Built Environment: Social and Physical Considerations’, Asia Design Journal. 5:204-226. (p.207, 221).

  •  Yeang, K. 2007, ‘Part 1: Some Basic Premises for Green Design’, Architectural Design. 77(5):136-137. (p.137)

  • Yeang, K. 1992, ‘Designing the Tropical Skyscraper’, in Khan, H-U. (ed), Mimar 42: Architecture in Development. London: Concept Media Ltd. (p.41)

Small Projects

  • Kevin Low – PDF p.1

  • Kevin Low PDF – P.2

  • Low, K. 2010, Safari Roof House Presentation Panels. Geneva: Aga Khan Award for Architecture. (pp. 3, 4).

William Lim

  • Lim, W. & Beng, T.H. 1998, Contemporary Vernacular: Evoking Traditions in Asian Architecture. Singapore: Select Books. (p.101).

  • Lim, W.S.W. 2004, ‘Asian Architecture in the New Millennium – A Postmodern Imagery’, Journal of Architectural Research and Studies. 2:103-120. (pp.104, 105).

Tan Kheng Soon

  • Lim, W.S.W Chatterjee, P. 2001, Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

  • Lim, W.S.W Kusno, A. 2000, Behind the Postcolonial: Architecture, Urban Space, and Political Cultures in Indonesia. New York: Routledge. (p.201).

  • Lim, W.S.W Singapore Institute of Architects. 1990, Kampong Bugis Development Guide Plan. Singapore: Singapore Institute of Architects.

  • Soon, T.K. 1989, Mega-Cities in the Tropics: Towards an Architectural Agenda for the Future. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. (p.15).

  • T.K Soon, T.K. 1997, 'The Architectural Aesthetics of Tropicality', in Powell, R. & Soon, T. (eds), Line, Edge & Shade: The Search for a Design Language in Tropical Asia: Tay Kheng Soon & Akitek Tenggara. Singapore: Page One Publisher. (pp.40-45).

  • Soon, T.K. 2001, 'Neo-Tropicality or Neo-Colonialsm?', Singapore Architect. 211:21.

  • Wallerstein, M. 2004, World-Systems Analysis: An introduction. Durham: Duke University.

  • Yeang, K. 1987, Tropical Urban Regionalism: Building in a South-East Asian City. Singapore: Concept Media.


Cool Thinking

The Changing Ways of Staying Cool

  • van Hoof, J. 2008, ‘Forty years of Fanger’s Model of Thermal Comfort: Comfort for All?’, Indoor Air. 18(3):182-201. (p.182).

  • Vazquez, F.I., Kastner, W. & Kofler, M. 2013, ‘Holistic Smart Homes for Air Quality and Thermal Comfort’, Intelligent Decision Technologies. 7(1):23-43. (p.27)

Boutique Comfort

  • Brundle, K.A. 1955, ‘Economy in Architecture’, The Quarterly Journal of the Institute of Architects of Malaya. 4:3.

  • Chang, T.C. & Huang, S. 2011, ‘Reclaiming the City: Waterfront Development in Singapore’, Urban Studies. 48(10):2085-2100. (p.2093).

  • Executive Summary and Key Findings (Green Singapore Folder) p.2

  • Jazeel, T. 2007, ‘Bawa and Beyond: Reading Sri Lanka’s Tropical Modern Architecture’, South Asia Journal for Culture. 1:7-26. (p.10).

  • N.A. 1929, ’Regulating Tropical Weather’, The Straits Times, 22nd March, p.5.

  • Ojeda, O.R. (ed). 2013, Kerry Hill: Crafting Modernism. London: Thames & Hudson. (p.14, 208).

  • Fry, M. & Drew, J. 1956, Tropical Architecture in the Humid Zone. New York: Reinhold. (p.38).

Home Comforts

Urban Planning

  • Smith, A. and Gordon Gill Architecture. 2011, Toward Zero Carbon: The Chicago Central Area DeCarbonization Plan. Mulgrave: Images Publishing.

  • Caprotti, F. and Romonwicz, J. 2013, 'Thermal Eco-cities: Green Building and Urban Themal Metabolism', International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 37(6):1949-67. (p.10 and p.238).

  • Jankovic, V. and Hebbert, M. 2012, 'Hidden Climate Change - Urban Meterology and the Scales of Real Weather', Climatic Change. 113:23-33. (p.24).

Enclosing the Outdoors

  • Cardoza, S. n.d, 'Innovative Architecture in Clarke Quay Riverfront District, Singapore', JustLuxe. Availble at: http://www.justluxe.com/inpictures/gallery.php?cid=1756246.

  • Chang, J-H.& Winter, T. 2015, 'Thermal Modernity and Architecture', The Journal of Architecture. 20(1): 92-121.

  • Coch, H. 1998, 'Bioclimatism in Vernacular Architecture', Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2(1): 67-88.

  • Cody J. W. 2003, Exporting American Architecture 1870–2000. New York: Routledge.

  • Connor S. 2010, The Matter of Air: Science and the Art of the Ethereal. London: Reaktion. (p.19).

  • DPA Architects. n.d, Bugis Junction. Available at: http://www.dpa.com.sg/projects/bugis-junction/.

  • Grant R. & Collins, D. 2006, Building Cambodia: New Khmer Architecture, 1953-1970. Bangkok: Key Publications.

  • Ho, R.K.F. 1992, ’Designing the Tropical City’, Singapore Institute of Architects’ Journal. 174: 12-13.

  • Hyde, R. 2008, Bioclimatic Housing: Innovative Designs for Warm Climates. London: Earthscan.

  • Ling, L.Y. 2012, 'Keeping Cool, Staying Indoors', My Green Space. 14(3). Available at: https://mygreenspace.nparks.gov.sg/keeping-cool-staying-green-indoors/.

  • Shearer, W. & Sultan, A.A. (eds). 1986, Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture: Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot and Arid Climates. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

  • Static Electrics. n.d, Fascinating Glimpse into the Humble History of the Ceiling Fan. Available at: http://staticelectricsbrisbane.com.au/fascinating-glimpse-history-humble-ceiling-fan/.

  • Wilkinson Eyre. 2013, Supernature: How Wilkinson Eyre made a Hothouse Cool. Singapore: ORO Editions. (p.66).

  • Zhaoye G, Yaodong W. 2000, 'East Asian Architecture of the 20th Century', in Frampton, K. & Zhaoye, G. (eds), World Architecture 1900-2000: A Critical Mosaic. 9, East Asia. Beijing: China Architecture and Building Press.

Urban Heat Island Effect

  • United States Environmental Protection Agency. Reducing Urban Heat Islands: Compendium of Strategies. (p.15).

  • Wong, N., Chen, Y. & Ong,  B.L. 2006, ‘Exploring the Urban Heat Island Effect in Singapore’, in Bay, J.H. (ed.), Tropical Sustainable Architecture. London: Architectural Press. pp.181-92. (pp.82, 194).

Fan Histories

  • Bruegmann, R. 1978, ‘Central Heating and Forced Ventilation: Origins and Effects on Architectural Design', Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. 37(3): 143-160. (p.152).

  • Hutt, J. & Alexander, H. 1992, Ogi : History of the Japanese Fan.  San Diego: Dauphin Pub. (pp.22, 34).

  • Iröns, N.J. 1982, Fans of Imperial China, Hong Kong: Kaiserreich Kunst in association with the House of Fans, London. (pp.38, 43).

  • Rice, K. & Katz-Hyman, M.B. (eds). 2010, World of a Slave: Encyclopedia of the Material Life of Slaves in the United States. Santa Barbara: Greenwood. (p.382).

  • Tsang, K.B. 2002, More Than Keeping Cool: Chinese Fans and Fan Painting. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. (p.12).

Cooling the Highrise

  • Ackermann, M. 2002, Cool Comfort: America's Romance with Air-Conditioning. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press. (p.183).

  • Ahmed-Shams, F.A., Khan-Mohammad, M.K.K., Amanullah-Amanullah, M.T.O. & Rasul Mohammad, G.R. 2014, 'Selection of Suitable Passive Cooling Strategy for a Subtropical Climate', International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. 9(1): 1-11. (p.6).

  • Archdaily. 2014, 'Goodwood Residence / WOHA', Arcdaily. Available at: http://www.archdaily.com/472471/goodwood-residence-woha/.

  • Aynsley, R. 2014, Natural Ventilation in Passive Design (Environment Design Guide). Australian Institute of Architects. Available at: http://www.environmentdesignguide.com.au/pages//content/recent-papers/edg-80-ra--natural-ventilation.php.

  • Cody, J. 2003, Exporting American Architecture 1870-2000. New York: Routledge. (p.64).

  • Cooper, G. 2002, Air-Conditioning America: Engineers and Controlled Environment, 1900-1960. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. (p.169).

  • Engelmann, P., Kalz, D. & Salvalai, G. 2014, 'Cooling Concepts for Non-residential Buildings: A Comparison of Cooling Concepts in Different Climate Zones', Energy and Buildings. 82: 447-456. (p.447).

  • Gonchar, J. 2014, 'Pearl River Tower', Architectural Record. Available at: http://www.architecturalrecord.com/articles/7971-pearl-river-tower?v=preview.

  • Hyde, R. 2008, Bioclimatic Housing: Innovative Designs for Warm Climates. London: Earthscan. (p.24).

  • Ibraheem, O. and Ford, B. 2012, 'The Feasibility of Passive Downdraught Evaporative Cooling for High-Rise Office Buildings in Cairo', Architectural Science Review. 55(4): 307-319. (p.307).

  • International Academy of Architecture. n.d., 'Prof. Kenneth Yeang', International Academy of Architecture. Available at: http://iaa-ngo.com/?page_id=289.

  • Lechner, N. 2009, Heating, Cooling, Lighting: Sustainable Design Methods for Architects. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons. (p.284).

  • Lehmann, S. and Yeang, K. 2010, 'Meeting with the Green Urban Planner: A Conversation between Ken Yeang and Steffen Lehmann on Eco-Masterplanning for Green Cities', Journal of Green Building. 5(1): 36-40. (p.38).

  • N.A. 2013, 'Pearl River Tower: The Most Energy Efficient Skyscraper', Amusing Planet. Available at: http://www.amusingplanet.com/2013/06/pearl-river-tower-most-energy-efficient.html.

  • NParks Singapore. 2015, 'Skyrise Greenery Incentive Scheme 2.0', Skyrise Greenery. Available at: https://www.skyrisegreenery.com/index.php/home/incentive_scheme/about/.

  • Poredi, N. & Argarwal, S. 2011, 'A Bioclimatic-Skyscraper', Buildo-Tech Magazine - India. 5(6): 1-2. Available at: http://buildotechindia.com/a_bioclimatic-skyscraper/.

  • Safamanesh, K. 1995, Menara Mesiniaga: Kualar Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysia: The Aga Khan Award for Architecture.

  • Samuel, D.G.L., Nagendra, S.M.S. & Maiya, M.P. 2013, 'Passive Alternatives to Mechanical Air Conditioning of Building: A Review', Building and Environment. 66: 54-64. (p.54).

  • Schatz, F. 2014, 'Goodwood Residence', Architecture Australia. May 2014 (3).

  • WOHA. n.d., 'Goodwood Residence, Singapore', WOHA. Available at: http://www.woha.net/#Goodwood-Residence.

  • Wood, A. and Salib, R. 2013, Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Office Buildings. New York: Routledge.

  • Yeang, K. 1992, ‘Designing the Tropical Skyscraper’, in Khan, H-U. (ed), Mimar 42: Architecture in Development. London: Concept Media Ltd. (p.41).

  • Yeang, K. 1999, The Green Skyscraper: The Basis for Designing Sustainable Intensive Buildings. Munich: Prestel. (pp.239-240).

Green Singapore

Air-conditioning and Pre-air-conditioning Cooling Technologies

  • Parkes, F. 2002, Begums, Thugs and Englishmen: The Journals of Fanny Parkes. Delhi: Penguin Books India. (pp.112-3).

Early Air-conditioning and Architecture

  • Banham, R. 1984, The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment. 2nd ed. London: Architectural Press. (pp. 174-75, 183).

  • Cooper, G. 1998,  Air-conditioning America: Engineers and the Controlled Environment, 1900-1960. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. (p.15).

  • Ackermann, Marsha. 2002, Cool Comfort: America's Romance with Air-conditioning. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. (p.49).

Constructing Thermal Comfort

  • Crowley, J.E. 2001, The Invention of Comfort: Sensibility and Design in Early Modern Britain and Early America. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. (p. ix).

  • Bedford, T. 1961, 'The Society's Lecture 1961: Researches on Thermal Comfort', Ergonomics. 4(4):289-309.

  • Murphy, M. 2006, Sick Building Syndrome and the Problem of Uncertainty: Environmental Politics, Technoscience and Women Workers. Durham: Duke University Press.

  • Cooper, G. 1998, Air-conditioning America: Engineers and the Controlled Environment, 1900-1960. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (p.79).

Post-war Development of Air-Conditioning

  • Banham, R. 1984, The Architecture of the Well-tempered Environment. 2nd ed. London: Architectural Press. (p. 91, 92, 159, 187).
  • Frampton, K. 1998, 'Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance', in Foster, H. (ed.), The Anti-aesthetic: Essays on Postmodern Culture. New York: New York Press. pp.16-30. (p.27).

Air-conditioning and Architecture in Singapore

  • Ackermann, Marsha. 2002, Cool Comfort: America's Romance with Air-conditioning. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.

  • Han, F.K., Ibrahim, Z., Chua, M., H., Lim, L., Low, I., Lin, R. & Chan, R. 2011, Lee Kuan Yew: Hard Truths to Keep Singapore Going. Singapore: Straits Times Press.

  • Huntington, E. 1924, Civilisation and Climate. New Haven: Yale University Press.

  • Markham, S. F. 1947, Climate and the Energy of Nations. London: Oxford University Press.

Air-conditioning Today

  • Levy, S. 2012, 'Google Throws Open Doors to its Top-Secret Data Center', Wired, http://www.wired.com/2012/10/ff-inside-google-data-center/. Accessed: 13th October, 2015.

  • Cox, S. 2012, 'Cooling a Warming Planet: A Global Air Conditioning Surge', Environment 360, http://ed360.yale.edu/feature/cooling_a_warming_planet_a_global_air_conditioning_surge/2550/. Accessed: 13th October, 2015.

  • N.A. 2015a, 'As U.S. Shutters Coal Plants, China and Japan are Building Them', Institute for Energy Research, http://instituteforenergyresearch.org/analysis/as-u-s-shutters-coal-plants-china-and-japan-are-building-them/. Accessed: 13th October, 2015.

  • Ottery, C. 2013, 'Map: Health Impacts of China's Coal Plants', Greenpeace, http://energydesk.greenpeace.org/2013/12/12/12/map-health-impact-chinas-coal-plants/. Accessed: 13th October, 2015.

  • Johnson, I., 2015, 'As Beijing becomes a Supercity, the Rapid Growth Brings Pain', New York Times, http://www.nytimes.come/2015/07/20/world/asia/in-china-a-supercity-rises-around-beijing.html?_r=0. Accessed: 13th October, 2015.

  • Zhou, D., Zhao, S., Zhang, L., Sun, G., & Liu, Y. 2015, 'The Footprint of Urban Heat Island Effect in China', Scientific Reports. 5:11160.

  • Brager, G., Ring, E., & Powell, K. 2000, 'Mixed-mode Ventilation: HVAC Meets Mother Nature', Engineered Systems. May.

  • de Dear, R., & Brager, G.S. 2002, 'Thermal Comfort in Naturally Ventilated Buildings: Revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55', Energy and Buildings. 34:549-561. 

Regionalism and Modern Regionalism

Modern Heritage

Low Cost Comfort

Modern Vernacular

Cool Marketing

Climatic Engineering

Cool Democracies

Skyrise Greening

District Cooling

  • N.A. 2010, 'District Cooling Blame Game', MEED: Middle East Economic Digest. 54(43):6.

  • Chow, A.T., Au, W.H., Yau, R., Cheng, V., Chan, A. & Fong, K.F. 2004, 'Applying District-cooling Technology in Hong Kong', Applied Energy. 

  • Climespace. n.d., Discover District Cooling and Combine Efficiency with Urban Ecology. Available at: www.climespace.fr/eng. (p.5).

  • Keep, T.P. n.d., District Cooling as an Energy and Economically Efficient Urban Utility. Singapore District Cooling. Available at: www.singaporepower.com.sg.  (p.1).

  • Qatar General Electricity and Water Corporation. 2014, District Cooling Workshop: Towards Cooperative District Cooling Society. Available at: www.km.com.qa.  (p.6).

  • Raze, B. & Rosen, M.A. 2010, 'District Heating and Cooling: Review of Technology and Potential Enhancement', Applied Energy. 93: -10. (p.8).

Vernacular Architecture

  • Coch, H. 1998, ‘Bioclimatism in Vernacular Architecture’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2(1):67-88.

  • Correa, C. 2000, ‘The Blessing of The Sky (Essay 7),’ Charles Correa. London: Thames & Hudson.

  • Emmanuel, M.R. 2005, An Urban Approach to Climate-Sensitive Design: Strategies for the Tropics. New York: Spon Press. (pp.63-64).

  • Chapter 2. Malaysian Vernacular Architecture and its relationship to climate, p.6

  • Ibid p.20

  • Ibid p.23

  • Villalon, A.  2003, ‘The Evolution of The Philippine Traditional House’, in Knapp, R.G. (ed.), Asia's Old Dwellings: Tradition, Resilience, and Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 203-20. (pp.205, 212, 217).

  • Yin, L.H.  2003, ‘The Singapore Shophouse: An Anglo-Chinese Urban Vernacular’, in Knapp, R.G. (ed.), Asia's Old Dwellings: Tradition, Resilience, and Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 115-34. (pp.122, 123).

  • Zhai, Z. & Previtali, J.M. 2010, ‘Ancient Vernacular Architecture: Characteristics Categorization and Energy Performance Evaluation’, Energy and Buildings. 42(3):357-65. (p.357).

  • Desai, M. & Desai M. 1998, 'The Adaptation and Growth of the Bungalow in India', in Pertruccioli, A. (ed.), European Houses in the Islamic Countries: Journal of the Islamic Environmental Design Research Centre, Como, Italy. (p.105).

An Uncomfortable Truth

  1. Wilhite, H.W. 2009, 'The Conditioning of Comfort', Building Research and Information. 37(1): 84-88. (p.87).
  2. Lauber, W., Cheret, P., Ferstl, K. and Ribbeck, E. 2005, Tropical Architecture: Sustainable and Humane Building in Africa, Latin America, and South-East Asia. New York: Prestel. (p.198).
  3. Carroon, J. 2010, Sustainable Preservation: Greening Existing Buildings. Hoboken: John Wiley. (p.7).
  4. Hitchings, R. and Lee, S.J. 2008, 'Air-conditioning and the Material Culture of Routine Human Encasement: The Case of Young People in Contemporary Singapore', Journal of Material Culture. 12: 251 - 265. (p.262).
  5. Denison, E. and Ren, G.Y. 2008, Modernism in China: Architectural Visions and Revolutions. Chichester: John Wiley. (p.19).
  6. Chang, J-H. 2001, 'Building a Colonial Technoscientific Network: Tropical Architecture, Building Science and the Politics of Decolonization', in Lu, D. (ed), Third World Modernism: Architecture, Development and Identity. New York: Routledge. pp.211-235. (pp.224-226).
  7. Connor, S. 2010, The Matter of Air: Science and the Art of the Ethereal. London: Reaktion. (p.19).

Thermal Modernity and Architecture

  1. When 'air-conditioned nation' was first used to describe Singapore, that particular author was not just referring to the ubiquity of AC in Singapore. He was also using 'air-conditioned nation' as a metaphor for the political culture of Singapore. See, C.George, Singapore, the Air-Conditioned Nation: Essays on the Politics of Comfort and Control, 1990-2000 (Singapore, Landmark Books, 2000).

  2. Arnold, D. 1996, The Problem of Nature: Environment Culture and European Expansion. Oxford: Blackwell; Driver, F. & Yeoh, B.S.A. 2000, 'Constructing the Tropics: Introduction', Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 21(1): 1-5.

  3. Chang, J-H. & King, A.D. 2011, 'Towards a Genealogy of "Tropical Architecture": Historical Fragments of Power-Knowledge, Built Environment, and Climate in the British Colonial Territories', Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 32(3): 283-300.

  4. N.A. 1929, 'Regulating Tropical', The Straits Times.  Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.5).

  5. Peleggi, M. 2012, 'The Social and Material Life of Colonial Hotels: Comfort Zones as Contact Zones in British Colombo and Singapore, Ca. 1870-1930', Journal of Social History. 46(1): 134-135.

  6. 1949, 'Beginning a New & More Beautiful City', The Singapore Free Press. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.10).

  7. See K.A. Brundle, 1955, 'Economy in Architecture', The Quarterly Journal of the Institute of Architects of Malaya. 4: 3.

  8. Chang, J-H. 2015. A Genealogy if Tropical Architecture: Colonialism, Ecology and Technology. London: Routledge; Le Roux, H. 2003, 'The Networks of Tropical Architecture', The Journal of Architecture. 8(3): 337-354.

  9. See for example, Page, J.K. 1955, 'A Preliminary Note on the Design of Buildings for Air Conditioning in the Tropics', Colonial Building Notes. 27: 1-13.

  10. Koenigsberger, O. 1968, 'Introductory Lecture to Climatic Design Series', Renate Koenigsberger Private Collection.

  11. Koenigsberger, O. 1964, 'Lecture on the Importance of Climate', Renate Koenigsberger Private Collection.

  12. N.A. 1999, 'The Cool Factor in Singapore's Success: SM', The Business Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.5).

  13. Lee's ideas about AC are discussed in detail in Kwang Han, F. et al. 2011, Lee Kuan Yew: Hard Truths to Keep Singapore Going. Singapore: Straits Times Press. (pp.343-44).

  14. Yeoh, B.S.A. 2000, 'From Colonial Neglect to Post-Independence Heritage: The Housing Landscape in the Central Area of Singapore', City and Society. 12(1): 103-124.

  15. Sia, C.Y. 1968, 'Air-Conditioning, Refrigeration Industry Boom Reaching Peak', The Straits Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.11).

  16. Winter, T. 2013, 'An Uncomfortable Truth: Air-Conditioning and Sustainability in Asia', Environment and Planning A. 45(4): 517-31.

  17. Seminar on Energy Conservation in Building Design and Construction (Singapore, PWD, 1976).

  18. Public Utilities Board Singapore. 1982, An Introduction to Electricity Department. Singapore: PUB.

  19. Chia, P. 1976, 'How One Ministry Saved $60,000 a Year on PUB Bill', The Straits Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.8).

  20. Lum, S.C. 1980, 'The Regulatory Control of Energy Conservation in Buildings', Singapore Institute of Architects' Journal. 98: 11-20.

  21. N.A. 1980, 'Holding Firm Set up to Develop Marina Centre', The Straits Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.7).

  22. Ong, C. 1987, 'Lobbies Soaring up to the Sky', The Straits Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.7).

  23. Graham, S. and Marvin, S. 2001, Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition. London: Routledge. (p.259).

  24. McKown, Z. 1995, 'From Concept to Reality: Designing Suntec City', in Singh, G. (ed) Suntec City: A Mega Project Profile. Singapore: Al Hilal Publishing. (p.12).

  25. Urban Redevelopment Authority. 1996, New Downtown: Ideas for the City of Tomorrow. Singapore: URA.

  26. Lim, L. 2001, 'New Way to Keep Marina South Cool', The Straits Times. Accessed: 20th January, 2016. (p.1).

  27. Powell, R. 1999, Rethinking the Skyscraper. The Complete Architecture of Ken Yeang. New York: Whitney Library pf Design.

Smart Thinking

Cool Spaces

Marina Bay

  • Lie, J. 2012, ‘Singapore’s Vision for Marina Bay’, Arup Journal. 1:4-7. (p.4).

  • Marina Bay Sands Singapore. 2013, Fact Sheet: Marina Bay Sands Green Initiatives. Singapore: Marina Bay Sands. (pp.1-3).

  • Reid, R.L. 2011, ‘Towering Imagination’, Civil Engineering. August, pp.50-59. (p.51-52).

  • Safdie Architects. 2010, Architecture and Design of Marina Bay Sands. Available at: www.msafdie.com/file/1698. (p.1).

  • Safdie, M. 2011, ‘Case Study: Marina Bay Sands’, CTBUH Journal. 1:11-17. (p.13).

Solaris

  • Gelber, M. n.d., Continuous Green: Solaris – Singapore, 2008-2010. Kuala Lumpur: T.R.Hamazah and Yeang. (pp.26, 33).

Jewel at Changi

  • Changi Airport Group. 2013, ‘Project Jewel Unveiled at National Day Rally’, Changi Connection. September, pp. 1-12 (p.7).

Bugis Junction

Gardens by the Bay

  • Atelier One. 2013, Istructe Structural Awards 2013 – Submission by Atelier One: Gardens by the Bay, Singapore – Cooled Conservatories, Supertrees & Aerial Walkways. Available at: http://www.istructe.org/getmedia/e8f33300-c603-4675-9c7f-fc5e07a54b6d/Exemplar-Submission-2.pdf.aspx. (p.6).

  • Bellew, P. & Davey, M. 2012, Green House: Green Engineering – Environmental Design at Gardens by the Bay, Singapore. Singapore: ORO Editions. (pp.14, 16, 62, 63, 72, 98).

  • BDOnline.co.uk. 2012, ‘Gardens by the Bay’, www.bdonline.co.uk. 22nd June. Available at: http://www.bdonline.co.uk/gardens-by-the-bay-singapore-by-wilkinson-eyre/5038325.article.

  • Davey, M., Bellew, P., Er, K., Kwek, A. & Lim, J. 2010, ‘Gardens by the Bay: High Performance through Design Optimization and Integration', Intelligent Buildings International. 2:140-157. (pp. 19, 110, 111, 148, 153, 155).

  • Wilkinson Eyre. 2013, Supernature: How Wilkinson Eyre made a Hothouse Cool. Singapore: ORO Editions. (pp.20, 66, 73, 77).

Clarke Quay

  • Chang, T.C. & Huang, S. 2011, ‘Reclaiming the City: Waterfront Development in Singapore’, Urban Studies. 48(10):2085-2100. (p.2093).

  • Hopkins, G. 2011, ‘Landscape Strategies to Adapt to a Changing Climate’, Australian Institute of Landscape Architects – Climate Change Adaptation Skills for Professionals Conference. (p.4).

  • Kiang, H.C. & Chan, V. 2000, ‘The “Night Zone” Storyline: Boat Quay, Clarke Quay and Robertson Quay’, TDSR. 11(2):41-49. (pp.42, 43, 47).